In addition, males with higher abstinence selfefficacy had a reduced risk of sexual debut 0. However, programs and policy shifts are needed not only at the national level, but at the community level, because events in communities and schools likely contribute to young people engaging in, or delaying, intercourse. Bankole A et al. The study, fielded in , included data from women and men, who were selected using a random household sampling method. To assess whether students accessed social support as a source of information, we asked them whether they had communicated with family members about HIV and AIDS and whether they had tried to obtain information about HIV from various sources. Again, no association between sexual behavior and education was seen among men. We created three multivariate models for each gender. Given that the majority of African youth begin having sex when they are of school-going age, schools are often considered an important site for HIV prevention programs. The full range of ages from 11—12 to 17 was present in both standards six and seven. Macintyre K et al. Strengths and Limitations The validity of our results is supported by several aspects of the study, including the sampling strategy, the sample size, the attention paid to ensuring youth understood the survey questions, the broad range of community members from whom data were collected and the use of teacher reports and researcher observation in addition to student reports to obtain information about schools and communities. The use of a discrete-time hazard model requires that our unit of analysis be the person-period i. The data analysis and interpretations presented here are the sole responsibility of the authors. In a multivariate analysis, young women were less likely to have begun having sex if they were in school, whether on track for their age hazard ratio, 0.
International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, , 40 2: To assess whether students accessed social support as a source of information, we asked them whether they had communicated with family members about HIV and AIDS and whether they had tried to obtain information about HIV from various sources. Zaba B et al. Nonetheless, young people are sometimes targeted with HIV prevention messages at such festivals. In addition, sexual debut was negatively associated with abstinence self-efficacy among males 0. In Sub-Saharan Africa, parent-child communication about sex including the risks that HIV poses is relatively uncommon; when it does occur, it often is the result of the parent discovering that the adolescent is sexually active, 43 which may explain the positive relationship between communication and sexual behavior in our analysis. Among young Kenyan men, however, there is no link between school attendance and number of romantic and sexual partners; instead, the strongest predictors of dropping out include impregnating a partner 3. Several social and demographic measures were also associated with educational attainment. Because they expected the relationship between sexual activity and schooling to be bidirectional, the researchers used survival analyses to first examine whether sexual activity is associated with an increased risk of dropping out of secondary school and, second, to explore whether schooling is related to the timing of sexual debut. However, prior research 34 and interviews with community members conducted as part of this study 50—52 suggest that community festivals may be hotspots for HIV transmission, as they enable casual sexual relations and complex sexual networking. We included a number of self-reported demographic variables as controls. Previous studies failed to capture the complexity of delaying sexual intercourse because they examined only individual-level variables. Pettifor AE et al. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models were used to identify bivariate and multivariate associations. To assess the timing and sequence of transitions related to education and sexual and reproductive health, the researchers interviewed young people aged 18—24 in Kisumu, Kenya, with the aid of life-history calendars on which they recorded the months in the past 10 years in which important life transitions had occurred. Responses were coded such that higher values on the resulting scale indicated greater knowledge about HIV. The data analysis and interpretations presented here are the sole responsibility of the authors. Members of both genders were less likely to have dropped out if their level of household assets fell into the middle or top, rather than bottom, tertile 0. A locally derived, continuous measure of socioeconomic status was also employed. Similarly, were youth who had had sex more likely than other youth to subsequently talk to relatives about HIV, or did such conversations contribute to youth engaging in intercourse for the first time? These results provide further evidence of the effectiveness of the program, whose main objective was to encourage positive behaviors among older primary students by providing accurate information about HIV prevention, promoting abstinence and encouraging youth to delay sexual activity. Young women were less likely to have had sex or had had sex at a later age if they were of Kissii 0. The discrete-time hazard model is often preferable to a continuous time model when the time units of the dependent variable are large and the problem of ties is imminent, as in this case where both age at first sex and age were measured in completed years. A second variable assessed the nature of the predominant HIV prevention message within schools and communities; messages were coded as either promoting abstinence or other. Rift Valley, Berkshire, UK:
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